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Thus it might appear to be beyond reason that the French word communication could possibly mean 'fistula1, but it can be translated as such if the fistula is a way of communication between the aorta and the pulmonary artery.

Sometimes the link is a secret code. I am not claiming that you should carry out this analysis on every part of the text; much of it may be intuitive or unnecessary in the case of a particular text. Underline only the items where you see a translation problem, and bear in mind that it is often helpful to study such an item first in context, then in isolation, as though it were a dictionary or an encyclopaedia entry only, and finally in context again.

Tn fact, such an analysis is, I think, an appropriate training for translators, since by underlining the appropriate words they will show they are aware of difficulties they might otherwise have missed.

A professional translator would not usually make such an analysis explicitly, since he would need to take only a sample in order to establish the properties of a texi. A translation critic, however, after determining the general properties - first of the text and secondly of the translation both these tasks would centre in the respective intentions of translator and critic - would use the underlined words as a basis for a detailed comparison of the two texts. To summarise, you have to study the text not for itself but as something that may have to be reconstituted for a different readership in a different culture.

It begins with choosing a method of approach. Secondly, when we are translating, we translate with four levels more or less consciously in mind: 1 the SL text level, the level of language, where we begin and which we continually but not continuously go back to; 2 the referential level, the level of objects and events, real or imaginary, which we progressively have to visualise and build up, and which is an essential part, first of the comprehension, then of the reproduction process; 3 the cohesive level, which is more general, and grammatical, which traces the train of thought, the feeling tone positive or negative and the various presuppositions of the SL text.

This level encompasses both comprehension and reproduction: it presents an overall picture, to which we may have to adjust the language level; 4 the level of naturalness, of common language appropriate to the writer or the speaker in a certain situation. Again, this is a generalised level, which constitutes a band within which the translator works, unless he is translating an authoritative text, in which case he sees the level of naturalness as a point of reference to determine the deviation - if any - between the author's level he is pursuing and the natural level.

This level of naturalness is concerned only with reproduction. Finally, there is the revision procedure, which may be concentrated or staggered according to the situation. This procedure constitutes at least half of the complete process.

The nature of naturalness is discussed in detail in my exposition of the theory of translating below; 'naturalness' is both grammatical and lexical, and is a touchstone at every level of a text, from paragraph to word, from title to punctuation.

The level of naturalness binds translation theory to translating theory, and translating theory to practice. If one accepts this theory of translating, there is no gap between translation theory and practice. The theory of translating is based, via the level of naturalness, on a theory of translation. Therefore one arrives at the scheme shown in Figure 2. A funt tional theory of language THE APPROACH A translation is something that has to be discussed. In too many schools and universities, it is still being imposed as an exercise in felicitous English style, where the warts of the original are ignored.

The teacher more or less imposes a fair copy which is a 'model' of his own English rather than proposing a version for discussion and criticism by students, some of whom will be brighter than he is. Both in its referential and its pragmatic aspect, it has an invariant factor, but this factor cannot be precisely defined since it depends on the requirements and constraints exercised by one original on one translation.

All one can do is to produce an argument with translation examples to support it- Nothing is purely objective or subjective- There are no cast-iron rules. Everything is more or less. Given these caveats, I am nevertheless going to take vou through my tentative translating process.

There are two approaches to translating and many compromises between them : 1 you start translating sentence by sentence, for say the first paragraph or chapter, to get the feel and the feeling tone of the text, and then you deliberately sit back, review the position, and read the rest of the SL text; 2 you read the whole text two or three times, and find the intention, register, tone, mark the difficult words and passages and start translating only when you have taken your bearings.

Which of the two mernods you choose may depend on your temperament, or on whether you trust your intuition for the first method or your powers of analysis for the second.

Alternatively, you may think the first method more suitable for a literary and the second for a technical or an institutional text.

The danger of the first method is that it may leave you with too much revision to do on the early part, and is therefore time-wasting. The second method usually preferable can be mechanical; a transiational text analysis is useful as a point of reference, but it should not inhibit the free play of your intuition.

Alternatively, you may prefer the first approach for a relatively easy text, the second for a harder one. From the point of view of the translator, any scientific investigation, both statistical and diagrammatic some linguists and translation theorists make a fetish of diagrams, scbemas and models , of what goes on in the brain mind?

during the process of translating is remote and at present speculative. The contribution of psycholinguistics to translation is limited: the positive, neutral or negative pragmatic effect of a word e. Osgood's work on semantic differentials is helpful, since the difference between 'positive' and 'negative1 i. between the writer's approval and his disapproval is always critical to the interpretation of a text.

The heart of translation theory is translation problems admitting that what is a problem to one translator may not be to another ; translation theory broadly consists of, and can be defined as. a iarge number of generalisations of translation problems, A theoretical discussion of the philosophy and the psychology of translation is remote from the translator's problems. Whether you produce a statistical survey through questionnaires of what a hundred translators think they think when they translate, or whether you follow what one translator goes through, mental stage by mental stage.

substituting encyclopaedia descriptions for dictionary definitions, using the best-sounding synonyms for literary translation, transferring all Graeco-Latin words, continuous paraphrasing, etc. But there is never any point in scientifically proving the obvious. THE TEXTUAL LEVEL Working on the text level, you intuitively and automatically make certain 'conversions1; you transpose the SL grammar clauses and groups into their 'ready1 TL equivalents and you translate the lexical units into the sense that appears immediately appropriate in the context of the sentence.

Your base level when you translate is the text. This is the level of the literal translation of the source language into the target language, the level of the trans-lationese you have to eliminate, but it also acts as a corrective of paraphrase and the parer-down of synonyms. So a part of your mind may be on the text level whilst another is elsewhere. Translation is pre-eminently the occupation in which you have to be thinking of several things at the same time. Whether a text is technical or literarv or institutional, you have to make up your mind.

summarily and continuously, what it is about, what it is in aid of. what the writer's peculiar slant on it is: say, L'albumine et ses interactions medicamenteuses It.

Say, La pression quantitative - the large number of pupils in schools, the demand for better-quality education, the need for suitable education for all. Say, Recherches sur un facteur diureuque d'origine lymphatique - the attempt to find a substance in the body fluid that promotes urine production, the disorders that inhibit the formation of the substance, the attempts to isolate the substance.

Always, you have to be able to summarise in crude Jay terms, to simplify at rhe risk of over-simplification, to pierce the jargon, to penetrate the fog of words. You get an abstraction like Ce phenomene s'avere; ce phenomener exact pour cellules et fibres - referring to a tumour becoming so large that it compresses the parenchyma next to it.

Usually, a more specific reference is desirable in the translation: the tumour's swelling, deterioration. Thus your translation is some hint of a compromise between the text and the facts.

For each sentence, when it is not clear, when there is an ambiguity, when the writing is abstract or figurative, you have to ask yourself: What is actually happening here? and why? For what reason, on what grounds, for what purpose? Can you visualise ii? If you cannot, you have to 'supplement1 the linguistic level, the text level with the referential level, the factual level with the necessary additional information no more from this level of reality, the facts of the matter.

In real life, what is the setting or scene, who are the actors or agents, what is the purpose? This may or may not take you away temporarily from the words in the text. And certainly it is all LOO easy to immerse yourself in language and to detach yourself from the reality, real or imaginary, that is being described. Far more acutely than writers wrestling with only one language, you become aware of the awful gap between words and objects, sentences and actions or processes'..

grammar and moods or attitudes. You have to gain perspective {distacco, recul'Aa stand back from the language and have an image of the reality behind the text, a reality for which you, and not the author unless it is an expressive or an authoritative text , are responsible and liable.

The referential goes hand in hand with the textual level. All languages have polysemous words and structures which can be finally solved only on the referential level, beginning with a few multi-purpose, overloaded prepositions and conjunctions, through dangling participles 'reading the paper, the dog barked loudly' to general words.

The referential level, where you mentally sort out the text, is built up out of, based on, the clarification of all linguistic difficulties and, where appropriate, supplementary information from the 'encyclopaedia' - my symbol for any work of reference or textbook. As it is in Claudel you translate: 'for the goddess Flora to pass' and leave the rest to the reader.

You build up the referential picture in your mind when you transform the SL into the TL text; and, being a professional, you are responsible for the truth of this picture. Does this mean, as Seleskovitch claims, that lthe SL words disappear' or that you l deverbalize the concepts' Delisle?

Not at all, you are working continuously on two levels, the real and the linguistic, life and language, reference and sense, but you write, you 'compose1, on the linguistic level, where your job is to achieve the greatest possible correspondence, referentially and pragmatically, with the words and sentences of the SI- text.

Thus the structure follows the train of thought; determines, say, the 'direction1 afd'ailleurs 'besides1, 'further1, 'anyway' in a text, ensures that a colon has a sequel, that ulterieur has a later reference; that there is a sequence of time, space and logic in the text. The second factor in the cohesive level is mood.

Again, this can be shown as a dialectical factor moving between positive and negative, emotive and neutral. It means tracing the thread of a text through its value-laden and value-free passages which may be expressed by objects or nouns Margaret Masterman has shown how a text alternates between 'help1 and 'disaster' , as well as adjectives or qualities. My third level, this attempt to follow the thought through the connectives and the feeling tone, and the emotion through value-laden or value-free expressions, is, admittedly, only tentative, but it may determine the difference between a humdrum or misleading translation and a good one.

This cohesive level is a regulator, it secures coherence, it adjusts emphasis. At this level, you reconsider the lengths of paragraphs and sentences, the formulation of the title; the tone of the conclusion e.

the appropriateness of a tout prendre, en definitive often tricky , en fin de compte, enfini} , a la fin, en sommey en tout etat de cause to summarise an argument at the beginning of a final sentence.

This is where the findings of discourse analysis are pertinent. Normally, vou can only do this by temporarily disengaging yourself from the SL text, by reading your own translation as though no original existed.

You get a piece like: Vne doctrine nee dans une fraction dtt cierge de VAmenque latine qui fotwnrte sous diver ses plumes et dans diverses chapelles el qui connait dejd un debut d application autontatre sous la tutelle de I'Etat. Now you still have to make that passage sound natural, which will usually depend on the degree of formality see p. But you might consider: lA doctrine originating in a group of Latin American clergy and proliferating among various writers and coteries, which is now just beginning to be put into practice in an authoritarian fashion under the auspices of the State' note that dtija often translates as 'now' , A word on 'naturalness1.

A translation of serious innovative writing maybe Rabelais, Shakespeare, Thomas Mann, maybe Hegel, Kant, maybe any authority may not sound natural, may not be natural to you, though if it is good it is likely to become more so with repeated readings: The funnel unravels an enormous mass of black smoke like a plait of horsehair being unwound, La ckeminie dfrvide une enormefumee noire, paredle a une tresse de cnn qu'on detord.

fThomasMann, Der Zauberberg. Thus in translating any type of text you have to sense 'naturalness', usually for the purpose of reproducing, sometimes for the purpose of deviating from naturalness.

In the 'mauve1 example, a retreat from the unnatural 'mauve' to the natural 'blue1 would only be justified if the SL text was both 'anonymous 1 and poorly written. You have to bear in mind that the level of naturalness of natural usage is grammatical as well as lexical i. That is why you cannot translate properly if the TL is not your language of habitual usage. That is why you so often have to detach yourself mentally from the SL text; why, if there is time, you should come back to your version after an interval.

Is it usage, is it common usage in that kind of writing? How frequent is it? Do not ask yourself: is it English? There is more English than the patriots and the purists and the chauvinists are aware of. Naturalness is easily defined, not so easy to be concrete about.

Natural usage comprises a variety of idioms or styles or registers determined primarily by the 'setting1 of the text, i. where it is typically published or found, secondarily by the author, topic and readership, all of whom are usually dependent on the setting. It may even appear to be quite 'unnatural1, e. g, take any article in Foreign Trade Moscow : 'To put it figuratively, foreign trade has become an important artery in the blood circulation of the Soviet Union's economic organism', or any other exariple of Soviet bureaucratic jargon; on the whole this might occasionally be tactfully clarified but it should be translated 'straight 1 as the natural language of participants in that setting.

However, unnatural translation is marked by interference, primarily from the SL text, possibly from a third language known to the translator including his own, if it is not the target language. You have to pay special attention to: 1 Word order. In all languages, adverbs and adverbials are the most mobile components of a sentence, and their placing often indicates the degree of emphasis on what is the new information rheme as well as naturalness.

They are the most delicate indicator of naturalness: He regularly sees me on Tuesdays. He sees me regularly on Tuesdays. No stress. On Tuesdays he sees me regularly. Stress on 'Tuesdays', 2 Common structures can be made unnatural by silly one-to-one translation from any language, e.

Both these translations are by English students. c The packaging having {etant muni de a sufficiently clear label, the cider vinegar consumer could not confuse it with ,. Both in West and East, thousands of words are drawing nearer to each other in meaning. Many sound natural when you transfer them, and may still have the wrong meaning: 'The book is actually in print' Le livre est actuellement sous presse. It fit ses necessity's: 'He relieved nature.

If you are a translator, check with three informants if you can. If you are a translation teacher, welcome an SL informant to help you decide on the naturalness or currency there is no difference , therefore degree of frequency of an SL expression. How do you get a feel for naturalness, both as a foreigner and as a native speaker? The too obvious answer is to read representative texts and talk with representative TL speakers failing which, representative TV and radio - and to get yourself fearlessly corrected.

Beware of books of idioms - they rarely distinguish between what is current e. g, 'keep my head above water' and what is dead e. Ldead as a door nail' , There is a natural tendency to merge three of the senses of the word 'idiom': a a group of words whose meaning cannot be predicted from the meanings of their constituent words e. The danger of this procedure is that it tends to devalue literal language at the expense of 'idiomatic' language, as though it were unnatural.

If anything, the reverse is the case. Certainly, idiomatic language can, being metaphor, be more pithy and vivid than literal language, but it can also be more conventional, fluctuate with fashion, and become archaic and refined 'he was like a cat on a hot tin roof swr des charbons ardents; wie auf glukenden Kohlen sitzen , and, above all, it can be a way of avoiding the literal truth.

In translating idiomatic into idiomatic language, it is particularly difficult to match equivalence of meaning with equivalence of frequency. Check and cross-check words and expressions in an up-to-date dictionary Longmans, Collins, COD - Note any word you are suspicious of. Remember, your mind is furnished with thousands of words and proper names that you half take for granted, that you seem to have known all your life, and that you do not properly know the meaning of.

You have to start checking them. Look up proper names as frequently as words: say you get Dax, cite de peiites H. Naturalness is not something you wait to acquire by instinct. You work towards it by small progressive stages, working from the most common to the less common features, like anything else rationally, even if you never quite attain it.

There is no universal naturalness. What is natural in one situation may be unnatural in another, but everyone has a natural, 'neutral' language where spoken and informal written language more or less coincide. It is rather easy to confuse naturalness with: a a colloquial style; b a succession of diched idioms, which some, particularly expatriate teachers, think is the heart of the language; c jargon; fd formal language.

Your first and last level is the text; then you have to continually bear in mind the level of reality which may be simulated, i.

e, imagined, as well as real , but you let it filter into the text only when this is necessary to complete or secure the readership's understanding of the text, and then normally only within informative and vocative texts. As regards the level of naturalness, you translate informative and vocative texts on this level irrespective of the naturalness of the original, bearing in mind that naturalness in, say, formal texts is quite different from naturalness in colloquial texts.

For expressive and authoritative texts, however, you keep to a natural level only if the original is written in ordinary language; if the original is linguistically or stylistically innovative, you should aim at a corresponding degree of innovation, representing the degree of deviation from naturalness, in your translation — ironically, even when translating these innovative texts, their natural level remains as a point of reference.

For sineeVite explosive, 'impassioned, enthusiastic, intense or violent, sincerity' may be natural, but nncerite'explosive is what the text, a serious novel, says, so 'explosive sincerity' is what you have to write, whether you like it or not you will get accustomed toix,ons'y fait a tout -unless? of course, you maintain I disagree that the figurative sense of explosif {temperament explosif has a wider currency than the figurative sense of 'explosive1 Can explosive temperament' , when you are justified in translating explosif by another word you claim comes within its semantic range 'fiery sincerity1?

When you reluctantly! Bazin, L'Eglise verte. The pragmatic not the referential component of copaxn is missed but 'pals' or 'mates' won't fit. On est oblige is stretched a little too far, whilst depourvu de is deceptive, it is such a common construction that even 'lacking in' is a little 'refined' or elevated. I would suggest: 'So thin, so fleshless that you have to show understanding for his fierce alt. Admittedly, except for technical terms and for well-used words for culturally overlapping familiar objects and actions, accuracy in translation lies normally within certain narrow ranges of words and structures, certain linguistic limits.

It is not so precise as precise, it is not 'this word and no other'. It is not an absolute there are no absolutes in translation. It represents the maximum degree of correspondence, referentially and pragmatically, between, on the one hand, the text as a whole and its various units of translation ranging usually from word to sentence and, on the other, the extralinguistic 'reality', which may be the world of reality or of the mind. If the translation of a sentence has no problems, it is based firmly on literal translation the literal translation of comprihensif is 'understanding1 and of versatile, 'fieWe' , plus virtually automatic and spontaneous transpositions and shifts, changes in word order etc.

Thus: MBt arrets a Pirigueux le 13 fforier, observe aeiuellemeni une greve de la farm. MB, who was arrested in Perigueux on 13th February, is at present observing a hunger strike. Then comes the struggle between the words in the SL - it may be one word like 'sleazy', it may be a collocation like la dark horse1, it may be a structure like 'the country's government' who governs what? Maybe if you are an interpreter, a natural communicator I write half-heartedly , you try to forget the SL words, you deverbalise, you produce independent thought, you take the message first, and then perhaps bring rhe SL words in.

If you are like me, you never forget the SL words, they are always the point of departure; you create, you interpret on the basis of these words. You abandon the SL text - literal translation if you like which, for the purpose of this argument, I couple with mandatory or virtually mandatory shifts and word-order changes only when its use makes the translation refercntially and pragmatically inaccurate, when it is unnatural, when it will not work.

By rule of thumb you know literal translation is likely to work best and most with written, prosy? semi-formal, non-literary language, and also with innovative language; worst and least with ordinary spoken idiomatic language.

Further, it is more often effectively used than most writers on translation, from Cicero to Nida and Neubert, but not Wilss lead you to believe. Since the sentence is the basic unit of thought, presenting an object and what it does, is, or is affected by, so the sentence is, in the first instance, your unit of translation, even though you may later find many SL and TL correspondences within that sentence.

Primarily, you translate by the sentence, and in each sentence, it is the object and what happens to it that you sort out first. Further, if the object has been previously mentioned, or it is the main theme, you put it in the early part of the sentence, whilst you put the new information at the end, where it normally gets most stress: Die Vignette hatie Thonualdten in Rom ennvorfen. The vignette was designed by Thorwaldsen in in Rome. Your problem is normally how to make sense of a difficult sentence.

Usually you only have trouble with grammar in a long complicated sentence, often weighed down by a series of word-groups depending on verb-nouns. Grammar being more versatile than lexis, you can render a sentence like the following in many versions: 1,'ahohtion de ce qui subsistmt des tutelles et la reorganisation du contrdle de legality notamment par la creation des chambres rdgionales des comptes, le transfer!

aux presidents dyassemblies dehberantes de IQ fonaion executive, la creation de regions de plein exerace, Vexiensicm de la capaciti d"int? rvention economique des collectivites territoriales, le transfer: par blocs aux differentes categories de collectivites de competences anterieurement exercees par VEtai, le transfert aux mimes collectivity des ressources d'F. The above translation has converted a dozen verb-nouns into verbs, which goes against the noun-forming tendency of most languages but perhaps clarifies the sentence.

Below the sentence, you go to clauses, both finite and non-finite, which, if you are experienced, you tend to recast intuitively see Chapter 8 on shifts or transpositions as in the previous long sentence, unless you are faced with an obscure or ambiguous sentence.

Within the clause, you may take next the two obviously cohesive types of collocations, adjective-plus-noun or verb-plus-object, or the various groups that are less con text-bound, I think Masterman's breath-group units may be more applicable to interpreters than to translators, Other difficulties with grammar are usually due to the use of archaic, little used, ambiguously placed or faulty structures. words, collocations and fixed phrases or idioms; these include neologisms and 'unfindabie' words, which I deal with separately.

THE PROCESS OK TRAMS!. ATJNG 33 Difficulties with words are of two kinds: a you do not understand them; b you find them hard to translate. If you cannot understand a word, h may be because all its possible meanings are not known to you, or because its meaning is determined by its unusual collocation or a reference elsewhere in the text.

We have to bear in mind that many common nouns have four types of meaning: a physical or material, b figurative, c Technical, d colloquial; thus: Physical Figurative Technical Colloquial maison house family home a home-made a first-rate b firm b tremendous Element dement a individual element, cell a at home b component {dans son c faith d principle poire pear fa pear-shaped b a switch a sucker quality of a pear b syringe b face juiciness metier job a skill loom a man occupation b experience b my line trade Zug pull fa procession a platoon a streak tug b feature b groove b tendency draught weapon c stop organ Pfeife whistle tune pipe organ wash-out The first thing to say about this diagram is that it is schematic, and that the colloquial meanings are tied to collocations or fixed phrases.

have one meaning only-a widespread illusion, Admittedly, some of the technical terms mentioned are 'familiar alternatives1, and others are often compounded with their classifiers, e. Orgelzug7 Orgelpfeife. My next point is that most nouns, verbs or adjectives can be used figuratively and therefore can have figurative meanings - the more common the word, the more contagious and accessible the figurative meanings.

If we are desperate, we have to test any sentence for a figurative meaning e. But be assured of one thing: the wriler must have known what he wanted to say: he would never have written a drop of nonsense in the middle ot a sea of sense, and somehow you have to find that sense, by any kind of lateral thinking: misprint, miseopying {anatomie for autonomic , author's linguistic or technical ignorance. Freudian slip prostate craniate; craniate doesn't exist, crdnienne; fine, but what has a prostate to do with a skull?

Skull, head, top? Upper prostate? So far I have been assuming that the word is more or less context-free - and I do think that far more words are more or less context-free than most people imagine- However, the meaning of many words is determined by their collocations, whether they appear in compounded nouns maison cenirale, prison; maison close, brothel; maison de culture, arts centre; maison de rapport, apartment block; maison de repos, convalescent home; maison de maitre, family mansion, etc.

Very rarely, they can only be clarified by a reference to the adjoining paragraphs or beyond: any mysterious object qualified by 'the 1 may take you far outside your sentence. In fact, since in the majority of texts you are more concerned with the message function than with the richness of description, and since the meanings of all but technical words are narrowed down in their context. translation correspondence is usually close.

However, we must remember that a great number of words in one language include and overlap in varying degrees of meaning the words they appear most obviously to translate into another language. Thus French words like silhouette, discontinuite', assurer, descendre, phenomene, evolution, egalemem are much more common and have a wider semantic range than their cognates in English, and therefore more often than not they are translated by several different more specific words.

Its numerous monosyllables make it the most pun-prone language in Europe. However, as long as you are sensitised to these lexical facts, you will not find rhem a problem unless they are used metalingually. One little item - say, the precise meaning of a Hohenvergleicktafel: what is a 'panorama'? Is it the same in German? Can it be a Kupferstich? What is the difference between an etching and an engraving?

Between gravieren and einschnit-zen? AH this, if you have no informant accessible, can take you longer than the 10—15 pages of the text which follow, and you have ro be prepared to give all that time to it but not in an exam. In real life, you have to be ready to take more time over checking one figure, chasing one acronym, or tracing one 'unfindable1 word than over translating the whole of the relatively easy and boring piece you find it in.

First, geographical terms. In a modern text, Beijing is no longer Peking; nor is Karl Marx Stadt now Chemnitz; nor is Mutare Zimbabwe any longer Umtali; and in Hong Kong will be Xianggang. The Polish Minister of Information rightly protested to the West Germans about this habit recently.

Only the English refer to the Channel as theirs. Consider giving classifiers to any town, mountain or river likely to be unknown to the readership, Check the existence of any place name used in a work of fiction: Tonio Kroger's Aarlsgaard does exist, but not in my atlas. Bear in mind and encourage the tendency of place-names to revert to their non-naturalised names Braunschweig, Hessen, Hannover , but do not overdo it - let Munich remain Munich, Do not take sides on any political disputes about place-names, Be particularly careful of proper names in medical texts: a drug in one country will be marketed under another brand name in another, or it may merely be a chemical formula such as 'aspirin'.

Tests, symptoms, diseases, syndromes, parts of the body are named after one 'scientist' in one language community and a different one, or are given a more general term, in another. Check the spelling of all proper names - this is where misprints are most common.

Remember that while English keeps the first names of foreign persons unchanged, French and Italian sometimes arbitrarily translate them, even if they are the names of living people, In the period between translating and revision, you should not lose sight of the linguistic problems of the text.

All translation problems are finally problems of the target language. Do not always be searching for synonyms. A change in word order may be the answer.

de nouveaux types d'Electrodes indicairices -. types indicative of future ranges. If it is a fact, not a word, you are searching for- How many casualties at Cassino?

I am not denying neurolinguistic, psychological processes in translation, far from it, I am merely saying you cannot analyse or schematise them; they arc unconscious, part of the imagination. If you are lucky, when you brood, you find a solution suddenly surfacing, REVISION During the final revision stage of translating, you constantly try to pare down your version in the interest of elegance and force, at the same time allowing some redundancy to facilitate reading and ensuring that no substantial sense component is lost.

Another tension - the translator of a demanding text is always on some tight-rope or other, like Nietzsche's Ubermensch. This means translating le pour-centage de grossesses menees a terme not as l the percentage of pregnancies brought to a successful conclusion', far less "pregnancies taken up to term' but perhaps as 'successful pregnancies 1; faire fonctwnner as 'operating' not 'putting into operation'. You are trying to get rid of paraphrase without impairing your text, the reality behind the text or the manner of writing you have preferred natural, innovative or stale - The virtue of concision is its packed meaning - and the punch it carries.

Your text is dependent on another text but, paradoxically again, in communicative translation you have to use a language that comes naturally to you, whilst in semantic translation, you have to empathise with the author the more you feel with the author, the better you are likely to translate - if you dislike a literary text, better not translate it at all - and in your empathy you should discover a way of writing which, whilst normally not natural to you, expresses a certain side of you 'naturally' and sincerely.

A great translation is also a work of art in its own right, but a good translation, even of a great work, need not be so. But my last word is this: be accurate. You have no licence to change words that have plain one-to-one translations just because you think they sound better than the original, though there is nothing wrong with it; or because you like synonyms, because you think you ought to change them to show how resourceful you are.

Mind particularly your descriptive words: adjectives, adverbs, nouns and verbs of quality. The fact that you are subjected as a translator to so many forces and tensions is no excuse for plain inaccuracy. You couldn't have a clearer indication that this is what the author would write in the foreign language, if he could.

Why do you think he wrote cigogne when you translate it as 'migrating bird'? Why did he noi write oiseuu migratoire? Is it because you're into text-linguistics, because your overall text strategies, your proto-typical structures, the global superstructures, the exciting new developments in the broad interdisciplinary field of the science of cognition demand this change?

Surely not. Many translators say you should never translate words, you translate sentences or ideas or messages. I think they are fooling themselves.

Finally all you have is words to translate, and you have to account for each of them somewhere in your TL text, sometimes by deliberately not translating them e.

In another chapter Chapter 19 I detail the various points you have to took out for when you revise. If you have the time, do a second revision a day or so later. It is difficult to resist making continual 'improvements1 in the taste area, and this is harmless provided you make sure that each revised detail does not impair the sentence or the cohesion of the text.

This runs on Windows and is avail-able for download at. There are many versions of Linux—known as Linux distributions—that use different tech-niques for performing software upgrades. We include Making a Difference exercises, many with solutions. Access is restricted to college instructors teaching from the book.

Instructors may obtain access only through their Pearson representatives. Check out our Programming Projects Resource Center for lots of additional exercise and project possibilities. Through practice exercises and immediate, personalized feedback, MyPro-grammingLab improves the programming competence of beginning students who often struggle with the basic concepts and paradigms of popular high-level programming lan-guages. An optional self-study and homework tool, a MyProgrammingLab course consists of hundreds of small practice problems organized around the structure of this textbook.

For students, the system automatically detects errors in the logic and syntax of their code sub-missions and offers targeted hints that enable students to figure out what went wrong— and why. For instructors, a comprehensive gradebook tracks correct and incorrect answers and stores the code inputted by students for review. For a full demonstration, to see feedback from instructors and students or to get started using MyProgrammingLab in your course, visit.

for long hours devoted to this project. We appreciate the guidance, wisdom and energy of Tracy Johnson, Executive Editor, Computer Science. Bob Engelhardt did a wonderful job bringing the book to publication. in Industrial Management. We wish to acknowledge the efforts of our reviewers. They provided countless suggestions for improving the presen-tation. Any remaining flaws in the book are our own. Tenth Edition reviewers: Chris Aburime, Minnesota State Colleges and Universities System; Gašper Ažman, A9.

Ninth Edition post-publication academic reviewers: Stefano Basagni, Northeastern University; Amr Elkady, Diablo Valley College; Chris Aburime, Minnesota State Colleges and Universities System.

Other recent edition reviewers: Virginia Bailey Jackson State University , Ed James-Beckham Borland , Thomas J. Borrelli Rochester Institute of Technology , Ed Brey Kohler Co. DePasquale The College of New Jersey , John Dibling SpryWare , Susan Gauch University of Arkansas , Doug Gregor Apple, Inc.

Higdon University of Indiana , Anne B. Horton Lockheed Martin , Terrell Hull Logicalis Integration Solutions , Linda M. Krause Elmhurst College , Wing-Ning Li University of Arkansas , Dean Mathias Utah State University , Robert A.

McLain Tide-water Community College , James P. McNellis Microsoft Corporation , Robert Myers Florida State University , Gavin Osborne Saskatchewan Institute of Applied Science and Technology , Amar Raheja California State Polytechnic University, Pomona , April Reagan Microsoft , Robert C.

Please address all correspondence to:. We hope you enjoy reading it! Pearson would like to thank and acknowledge the following people for their contributions to the Global Edition.

Rosanne Els, University of Kawazulu Natal; Almasi S. Maguya, Mzumbe University; Khyat Sharma. Gopal, Anna University; Subrajeet Mohapatra, Birla Institute of Technology; Prabhat Verma, Harcourt Butler Technological Institute. He is a graduate of MIT, where he studied Information Technology. He holds the Java Certified Programmer and Java Certified Developer des-ignations and is an Oracle Java Champion. Paul was also named as a Microsoft® Most Valuable Professional MVP for C in — He and his co-author, Dr.

Deitel earned B. and M. degrees in Electrical Engineering from MIT and a Ph. in Mathematics from Boston University—he studied computing in each of these programs before they spun off Com-puter Science programs. Deitel has delivered hun-dreds of programming courses to academic, corporate, government and military clients.

The questions will be based on the core syllabus content, will be of a dificulty appropriate to grades C to G, and will test skills mainly in Assessment Objectives A and B.. Instead of trying to control and order what is not meant to be controlled and ordered, we need to learn how to follow the Way of Non-Ado by making things simple and returning the Primal. In this section we prove some important properties of a C-algebra and we give sufficient conditions for two congruences on a C-algebra A to be permutable.

Also we derive. His theory is usable only by moral agents capable of seeing the long-run implications of policies for whole systems, natural and social, and he believed that we moral agents do in. A compound statement that con- tains variable declarations is usually called a block , and the variables declared within the block are said to be local to the block or to have the. We have used the evolutionary multi-objective optimization method based on decomposition to solve this problem and to find out the optimal deployment scenario for a given set of.

In essence, as long as your index. php page has the right code, you can display every piece of content you enter in the WordPress admin with it.. In the index. php file, you should find. Binary search is a searching algorithm to find the position of the searched value in a list by dividing the list into left and right sublists. Prior to performing this searching.

According to The Land Report, the top one hundred landowners in America own close to 38 million acres, which is 1. Baca lebih lanjut Halaman.

Unduh sekarang Halaman. Teks penuh 1. Harvey Deitel. Editorial Assistant: Kristy Alaura Acquisitions Editor, Global Editions: Sourabh Maheshwari VP of Marketing: Christy Lesko Director of Field Marketing: Tim Galligan Product Marketing Manager: Bram Van Kempen Field Marketing Manager: Demetrius Hall Marketing Assistant: Jon Bryant Director of Product Management: Erin Gregg Team Lead, Program and Project Management: Scott Disanno Program Manager: Carole Snyder Project Manager: Robert Engelhardt Project Editor, Global Editions: K.

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and other countries. Contents 9 4 Algorithm Development and Control Statements: Part 1 4. Operator 5. Contents 11 6. Iteration 6.

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Credits and acknowledgments borrowed from other sources and reproduced, with permission, in this textbook appear on page 6. The rights of Paul Deitel and Harvey Deitel to be identified as the authors of this work have been asserted by them in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act All rights reserved.

No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without either the prior written permission of the publisher or a license permitting restricted copying in the United Kingdom issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency Ltd, Saffron House, 6—10 Kirby Street, London EC1N 8TS.

All trademarks used herein are the property of their respective owners. The use of any trademark in this text does not vest in the author or publisher any trademark ownership rights in such trademarks, nor does the use of such trademarks imply any affiliation with or endorsement of this book by such owners.

A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1. In memory of Marvin Minsky, a founding father of the field of artificial intelligence. It was a privilege to be your student in two graduate courses at M.

Every lecture you gave inspired your students to think beyond limits. CERT® is registered in the U. Patent and Trademark Office by Carnegie Mellon University. The documents and related graphics contained herein could include technical inaccuracies or typograph-ical errors.

Changes are periodtypograph-ically added to the information herein. Partial screen shots may be viewed in full within the software version specified. Microsoft® and Windows ® are registered trademarks of the Microsoft Corporation in the U. other countries. Screen shots and icons reprinted with permission from the Microsoft Corporation. This book is not sponsored or endorsed by or affiliated with the Microsoft Corporation.

The book presents leading-edge com-puting technologies in a friendly manner appropriate for introductory college course sequences, based on the curriculum recommendations of two key professional organiza-tions—the ACM and the IEEE.

In this Preface we provide more detail for students, instruc-tors and professionals. At the heart of the book is the Deitel signature live-code approach —we present most concepts in the context of complete working programs followed by sample executions, rather than in code snippets. Read the Before You Begin section to learn how to set up your Linux-based, Windows-based or Apple OS X-based computer to run the hundreds of code examples. All the source code is available at. Computer Science Curricula Curriculum Guidelines for Undergraduate Degree Programs in Com-puter Science , December 20, , The Joint Task Force on Computing Curricula, Association for Computing Machinery ACM , IEEE Computer Society.

These are exciting times in the programming languages community with each of the major languages striving to keep pace with compelling new programming technologies. Smart pointers help you avoid dynamic memory management er-rors by providing additional functionality beyond that of built-in pointers. The vast majority of your data struc-ture needs can be fulfilled by reusing these Standard Library capabilities.

This chapter includes. semantics, multithreading, tuples, decltype, constexpr and more see Fig. Chapter 15 cont. We provide thorough coverage of the built-in pointer capabilities and the intimate relationship among built-in pointers, C strings and built-in arrays.

Several online chapters and appendices are included. mone-tary amounts precisely for business applications. the option of displaying it on the screen, writing it to a file, concatenating it with other strings, etc. Using raw pointers and dynamic-memory allocation. The book introduces the basic concepts and terminology of object technology in Chapter 1.

We worked hard to make this chapter especially acces-sible to novices. ob-jects which we begin using in Chapter 3 and C-style pointer-based strings. programs more robust and eliminate many of the security problems of C strings. We continue to discuss C strings later in the book to prepare you for working with the legacy code in industry.

In new development, you should favor string objects. we discuss in Chapter 8. pointer-based arrays. In new development, you should favor class template array and vector objects. A key goal of this book is to prepare you to build valu-able reusvalu-able classes.

Chapter 10 begins with a test-drive of class template string. so you can see an elegant use of operator overloading before you implement your own customized class with overloaded operators. In the Chapter 10 case study,. convert it to a class template. You will have truly crafted valuable classes. We provide several well-engineered.

We introduce the UML in the early chapters. Online Chapters 25 and 26 include an. optional object-oriented design case study using the UML. We design and fully im-plement the software for a simple automated teller machine ATM. We analyze a typical requirements document that specifies the system to be built. We determine the classes needed to implement that system, the attributes the classes need to have, the behaviors the classes need to exhibit and we specify how objects of the classes must interact with one another to meet the system requirements.

Chapter 12 contains a detailed. We integrate basic exception handling early in the book Chapter 7. Instructors can easily pull more detailed material for-ward from Chapter 17, Exception Handling: A Deeper Look.

We provide a rich multi-chapter treat-ment of data structures—see the Data Structures module in the chapter depen-dency chart Fig. We discuss structured programming , object-oriented programming and generic programming. We include a broad range of example programs selected from computer science, informa-tion technology, business, simulainforma-tion, game playing and other topics. BasePlusCommissionEmployee class Binary tree creation and traversal BinarySearch test program Card shuffling and dealing ClientData class.

Extensive self-review exercises and answers are included for self-study. Compilation and linking process Compound interest calculations with for Converting string objects to C strings Counter-controlled repetition. Initializing an array in a declaration Input from an istringstream object Iterative factorial solution. Standard Library string class program Stream manipulator showbase string assignment and concatenation string member function substr Student class.

Abundant tables, line drawings, UML diagrams, programs and program outputs are in-cluded. The chart in Fig. We stress program clar-ity and concentrate on building well-engineered software.

Live-code approach. We include in Chapters 4 and 5 a clear treatment of control state-ments and algorithm development. Syntax coloring. Our col-oring conventions are as follows:. Code highlighting. We place shaded rectangles around the new features in each program. Using fonts for emphasis.

We color the defining occurrence of each key term in bold colored text for easy reference. We emphasize on-screen components in the boldHelvetica font e. We clearly state the chapter objectives. Programming tips. We include programming tips to help you focus on key aspects of pro-gram development. Summary Bullets. We present a section-by-section, bullet-list summary of each chapter. The Good Programming Practices call attention to techniques that will help you pro-duce programs that are clearer, more understandable and more maintainable.

These tips highlight opportunities for making your programs run faster or minimizing the amount of memory that they occupy. Building security into software from the beginning of the de-velopment cycle can greatly reduce vulnerabilities. The CERT® Coordination Center www.

org was created to analyze and respond promptly to attacks. CERT publishes and promotes secure coding standards for various popular programming languages to help software developers implement industrial-strength systems which avoid the programming practices that leave systems open to attacks. Seacord, an adjunct professor in the Carnegie Mellon University School of Computer Science and former Secure Coding Manager at CERT. see the inside front cover for your access key contains the following videos as well as chapters and appendices in searchable PDF format:.

This runs on Windows and is avail-able for download at. There are many versions of Linux—known as Linux distributions—that use different tech-niques for performing software upgrades. We include Making a Difference exercises, many with solutions. Access is restricted to college instructors teaching from the book. Instructors may obtain access only through their Pearson representatives.

A TEXTBOOK OF TRANSLATION by Peter Newmark,2007年07月19日

Webdata:image/png;base64,iVBORw0KGgoAAAANSUhEUgAAAKAAAAB4CAYAAAB1ovlvAAAAAXNSR0IArs4c6QAAArNJREFUeF7t1zFqKlEAhtEbTe8CXJO1YBFtXEd2lE24G+1FBZmH6VIkxSv8QM5UFgM WebA program that records all deposit and withdrawal actions in one GUI database. Auto-Accounting by Roderick Adrianus Lodewijk Maria van Nispen The program takes a stock symbol and then displays all the relevant information in the terminal, such as financial statements, financial ratios and the current stock price Web𝐇𝐨𝐮𝐬𝐢𝐧𝐠 𝐄𝐝𝐠𝐞: degree home-related services platform for your real-estate needs, like: Pay on Credit: Pay rent, bills, maintenance, education fees & more with your Credit Card. Get 45 days interest-free period & win exciting rewards - Housing Premium: Speak directly with owners & save brokerage WebDigital Number Systems Decimal Nunber System Binary Number System: Octal Number Systeve 3) Heratecinal Number System , Number Conversions Decimal-to-Binary Convers WebWe wrote the code examples in C++ How to Program, 10/e using the following free C++ development tools: • Microsoft’s free Visual Studio Community edition, which includes Visual C++ and other Microsoft development tools. This runs on Windows and is avail-able for download at • GNU’s free GNU C++ WebキヤノンEOS5(年発売)は、キヤノンAF一眼レフ中級機ですが、後から出たキヤノンEOS55(年発売),キヤノンEOS7(年発売),キヤノンEOS7s(年発売)の陰に隠れて、最近は流行らなくなりました。(写真集「うめめ」で有名な梅佳代さんが使っているということで、少しだけ話題に ... read more

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